Diamond is the hardest mineral in nature. It is formed at a depth of 150-250 km below the surface at temperatures 1000-1200 C° within kimberlite rock. It reaches to the surface by magma outbursts. With the weariness of the rock the diamonds migrate in the streams and form diamond deposits in the erosion. Today, most of the diamonds are extracted from kimberlite chimneys made using large machines. There is still a traditional mining – alluvial mining – direct mining from the ground by small, disorganized diggers using the most basic tools.
The miners produce rough diamonds of many sizes, colors and shapes. In this condition they are not brilliant and sparkling.
The first step in diamond processing is marker. The role of the marker is to turn the diamond into polished stone with minimal defects and maximum value. This process requires planning that involves identification of the defects, consideration of the rough form, market needs and roughness directions of the stone. When all things are brought into account, the diamond is marked with a special marking pen.
The next step in diamond processing is spliting. The diamond will be emitted by a quick knife stroke, at the end of which the defects will be removed from the stone.
Then, the diamond undergoes sawing. A copper saw that is smeared with oil and a diamond powder that rotates quickly and gradually saw the diamond, this process takes many hours.
At the end of the sawing process comes the polishing that done by a spinning wheel with diamond powder. With this wheel, the wigs are polished and thus we get the final shape we want. Diamond polishing is divided into stages where each worker specializes in a particular section, and in the end, the diamond is polished and reaches its shape processed by several workers.
At the end of the polishing process, the final stage comes in the diamond processing,the boiling of the diamond in the acid to remove the fats, glue and other materials that prevent the shine and beauty of the stone.
At the end of all these stages, the processed diamond is obtained as we know it: glare, sparkling and beautifol.